City of Tulsa and Oklahoma Statistics
It is hard to calculate the individual costs due to reduced academic performance, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse. Health measures may include sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Societal costs have been documented in recent studies to be between $87,000 to $240,776 in medical, legal and loss of wages to the victim and perpetrator.
Intimate Partner Violence (National, State, Local)
DID YOU KNOW? (National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. (2015). What is domestic violence?. Retrieved from https://ncadv.org/statistics)
• In the United States, an average of 20 people are physically abused by intimate partners every minute. This equates to more than 10 million abuse victims annually.i
• 1 in 3 women and 1 in 4 men have been physically abused by an intimate partner.ii
• 1 in 5 women and 1 in 7 men have been severely physically abused by an intimate partner.iii
• 1 in 7 women and 1 in 18 men have been stalked. Stalking causes the target to fear she/he or someone close to her/him will be harmed or killed.iv
• On a typical day, domestic violence hotlines nationwide receive approximately 20,800 calls.
• The presence of a gun in a domestic violence situation increases the risk of homicide by 500%.v • Intimate partner violence accounts for 15% of all violent crime.vi
• Intimate partner violence is most common among women between the ages of 18-24.vii • 19% of intimate partner violence involves a weapon.viii
• 1 in 5 women and 1 in 59 men in the United States is raped during his/her lifetime.ix
• 9.4% of women in the United States have been raped by an intimate partner.x
• 19.3 million women and 5.1 million men in the United States have been stalked.xi
• 66.2% of female stalking victims reported stalking by a current or former intimate partner.xii
• 1 in 3 female murder victims and 1 in 20 male murder victims are killed by intimate partners.xiii
• A study of intimate partner homicides found 20% of victims were family members or friends of the abused partner, neighbors, persons who intervened, law enforcement responders, or bystanders.xiv
• 72% of all murder-suicides are perpetrated by intimate partners.xv
• 94% of murder-suicide victims are female.xvi
• Victims of intimate partner violence are at increased risk of contracting HIV or other STI’s due to forced intercourse and/or prolonged exposure to stress. xvii
• Intimate partner victimization is correlated with a higher rate of depression and suicidal behavior.xviii
• Only 34% of people who are injured by intimate partners receive medical care for their injuries.xix
• Victims of intimate partner violence lose a total of 8,000,000 million days of paid work each year, the equivalent of 32,000 full-time jobs.xx
• Intimate partner violence is estimated to cost the US economy between $5.8 billion and $12.6 billion annually, up to 0.125% of the national gross domestic product.xxi
• Between 21-60% of victims of intimate partner violence lose their jobs due to reasons stemming from the abuse.xxii
• Between 2003 and 2008, 142 women were murdered in their workplace by former or current intimate partners. This amounts to 22% of workplace homicides among women.xxiii
• 1 in 3 women and 1 in 4 men have experienced some form of physical violence by an intimate partner.vi
• On a typical day, domestic violence hotlines receive approximately 21,000 calls, approximately 15 calls every minute.vii
• Intimate partner violence accounts for 15% of all violent crime.viii
• Having a gun in the home increases the risk of homicide by at least 500%. ix
• 72% of all murder-suicides involved an intimate partner; 94% of the victims of these crimes are female.x
In the City of Tulsa
In 2017, 22,257 calls to 9-1-1 related to domestic violence, and sexual assault In 2017, there have 336 reports of rape. 72 cases were cleared by either the arrest of the suspect or through charges successfully being presented to the DA’s office. 120 cases have been cleared exceptionally due to DA’s office decline to file charges or the victim decided not to proceed with prosecution. In addition, 51 cases were unfounded. (Tulsa Police Department Sex Crimes Unite City of Tulsa Police Department, Detective Division, November 30, 2017)
In 2016, 24,062 calls for domestic violence were received. Tulsa Police Department took 430 reports of rape. (Tulsa Police Department Sex Crimes Unite City of Tulsa Police Department, Detective Division, November 30, 2017)
Source of Content: i Black, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J. & Stevens, M. (2011). The national intimate partner and sexual violence survey: 2010 summary report. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/nisvs_report2010-a.pdf. ii Ibid. iii Ibid. iv Ibid. v Campbell, J.C., Webster, D., Koziol-McLain, J., Block, C., Campbell, D., Curry, M. A., Gary, F., Glass, N., McFarlane, J., Sachs, C., Sharps, P., Ulrich, Y., Wilt, S., Manganello, J., Xu, X., Schollenberger, J., Frye, V. & Lauphon, K. (2003). Risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships: Results from a multisite case control study. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1089-1097. vi Truman, J. L. & Morgan, R. E. (2014). Nonfatal domestic violence, 2003-2012. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ndv0312.pdf. vii Ibid. viii Ibid. ixBlack, M.C., Basile, K.C., Breiding, M.J., Smith, S.G., Walters, M.L., Merrick, M.T., Chen, J. & Stevens, M. (2011). The national intimate partner and sexual violence survey: 2010 summary report. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/nisvs_report2010-a.pdf. x Ibid. xi Ibid. xii Ibid. xiii Bridges, F.S., Tatum, K. M., & Kunselman, J.C. (2008). Domestic violence statutes and rates of intimate partner and family homicide: A research note. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 19(1), 117-130. xiv Smith, S., Fowler, K. & Niolon, P. (2014). Intimate partner homicide and corollary victims in 16 states: National violent death reporting system, 2003-2009. American Journal of Public Health, 104(3), 461-466. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301582. xv Violence Policy Center. (2012). American roulette: Murder-suicide in the United States. Retrieved from www.vpc.org/studies/amroul2012.pdf. xvi Ibid. xvii World Health Organization (2013). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and nonpartner sexual violence. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85239/1/9789241564625_eng.pdf?ua=1. xviii Ibid. xix Truman, J. L. & Morgan, R. E. (2014). Nonfatal domestic violence, 2003-2012. Retrieved from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ndv0312.pdf. xx Rothman, E., Hathaway, J., Stidsen, A. & de Vries, H. (2007). How employment helps female victims of intimate partner abuse: A qualitative study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(2), 136-143. doi: 10.1037/1076-89184.108.40.206. xxi World Health Organization (2004). The economic dimensions of intimate partner violence. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42944/1/9241591609.pdf. xxii Ibid. xxiii Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R. & Hamby, S. (2011). Children’s exposure to intimate partner violence and other family violence. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/232272.pdf.Gender:
In the U.S. among adults, 35.6% of women and 28.5% of men experience some form of intimate partner violence in their lifetime. The GLBTQ community are more likely to experience intimate partner violence.
In the U.S. among adults, 1 in 5 black and white women will experience rape in their lives with 1 in 7 Hispanic, 1 in 4 American Indians, and 1 in 3 multiracial.
In the U.S. among college students, college women experience the highest rates of rape and sexual assault of any other age group. Male college students are five times more likely to experience rape or sexual assault than nonstudents of the same age.
In Oklahoma among adults, 12.2% of women and 2.1% of men have ever had sex without their consent (Oklahoma State Department of Health, Behavioral Risk Factor Survey Surveillance, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.ok.us/stats/Health_Surveys/BRFSS/Statistics11.shtml).
In Tulsa County among adults, 14.0% of women and 1.0% of men have ever had sex without their consent (Oklahoma State Department of Health, Behavioral Risk Factor Survey Surveillance, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.ok.us/stats/Health_Surveys/BRFSS/Statistics11.shtml).
In Oklahoma among teens, 11% of females and 7.3% of males surveyed reported having ever been physically forced to have sex (Oklahoma State Department of Health, Youth Risk Behavioral Factor Survey Surveillance, 2011, 2013, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.ok.us/stats/Health_Surveys/YRBSS/Statistics.shtml).
In Oklahoma among teens, 13.5% of females and 9.1% of males surveyed experienced sexual dating violence. (Oklahoma State Department of Health, Youth Risk Behavioral Factor Survey Surveillance, 2013, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.ok.us/stats/Health_Surveys/YRBSS/Statistics.shtml)
In Oklahoma among teens, 9.0% of females and 5.8% of males surveyed experienced physical dating violence. (Oklahoma State Department of Health, Youth Risk Behavioral Factor Survey Surveillance, 2013, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.ok.us/stats/Health_Surveys/YRBSS/Statistics.shtml).
In the U.S. many perpetrators are serial predators. In one study, 7% of men survey admitted to raping someone, and 3.5% were responsible for 90% of self-reported rapes (Lisak, 2002). In a similar study, 71% of people who perpetrated sexual assault admitted to more than one assault (McWhorter, 2009). Researchers have documented common factor in male predators who commit sexual violence: hostile attitudes toward women, belief in gender stereotypes, belief that women often say no even when they expect or want sex, believe that alcohol can justify their action, and exhibit hyper-masculinity.
Domestic Violence Deaths
This data comes from the Oklahoma Office of the Attorney General, (2017). An Analysis of 2015 Domestic Violence Homicides, Report Year 2016. Retrieved from http://www.oag.ok.gov/Websites/oag/images/Documents/Divisions/Victim%20Services/2016_ANNUAL_REPORT_updated_1-17-17.pdf
In Oklahoma, 89 domestic violence deaths occurred out of 241 murders. Of these victims, 22 were in Tulsa County and 21 were in Oklahoma County. The highest domestic violence deaths occurred in 2011 at 96.
In 2015, Domestic Violence Deaths….
Gender: 40 (43%) victims were female and 54 (57%) were male. Of the 54 male victims, 40 (74%) were killed by male perpetrators. Of the 40 female victims, 38 (95%) were killed by male perpetrators and 2 adult female victims were killed by other adult females. Consistent with previous years, the overwhelming majority (80%) of perpetrators were male. Of the 20 female perpetrators, half killed their intimate partners or former intimate partners and 9 (45%) killed a child (e.g. biological child, foster child, grandchild etc.)
Race: 57 victims (61%) were Caucasian, 16 (17%) were African American, 9 (10%) were Hispanic, 5 (5%) were Native American, 4 (4%) were Asian, and 3 (2%) were classified as Other; 61 perpetrators (61%) were Caucasian, 19 (19%) were African American, 10 (10%) were Native American, 5 (5%) were Hispanic/Latino Origin, 4 (4%) were Asian, and 1 (1%) was unknown.
Age: Victims between the ages of 21 and 40 represented the largest group. The average age of victims was 31.98. The youngest homicide victim was 2-months-old. The oldest victim killed was 73 years old. The 24 child victims (< 18 years old) identified by the Review Board, represent a 33% increase from 2014. Of the 24 child victims, two-thirds were under 5-years-old. Perpetrators between the age of 21 and 40 represented the largest age group. The average age of perpetrators was 35.91. The youngest homicide perpetrator was 13 years old and the oldest was 86 years old. Four perpetrators were less than 18 years old.
Cause of Death: The leading cause of death of the victims identified in 2015 was firearms (45%). Other causes of death included knife/cutting instruments, blunt force, strangulation, asphyxiation, and poisoning. Firearms were the overwhelming cause of death (82%) for perpetrators who committed suicide or who were killed by police/bystander intervention.
Relationships: In 2015, the majority of domestic violence homicides in Oklahoma were perpetrated by family members (50%) and intimate partners (38%). Intimate partner homicide (IPH) includes current or former spouses, and current or former girlfriends or boyfriends. Family members who killed other family members included fathers, mothers, stepfathers, sons, brothers, grandparents, nephews, and other relatives. In 7% of the cases, the homicide was categorized as a triangle. A triangular homicide includes situations in which a former spouse, girlfriend or boyfriend kills the new spouse, girlfriend or boyfriend, or vice versa. In 2% of the cases, the homicides were perpetrated by roommates. Additional cases involved 1 Good Samaritan (non-involved person who intervenes on behalf of a victim) and 1 bystander.
Murder-Suicide Oklahoma 2015 Intimate partners perpetrated 86% of all murder-suicides. Males perpetrated 88% of all murder-suicide and attempted murder-suicide cases and 92% of all IPV specific murder-suicide and attempted murder-suicide cases.
Lethality Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide Victims from 1998-2015. 69% had prior evidence of domestic violence (62% physical, 7% sexual, 44% psychological/emotional abuse). The perpetrator made prior death threats against the victim in 45% of cases. The perpetrator strangled the victim in the past 12% of the cases. The perpetrator demonstrated morbid jealousy in the past with 43% of the cases. The perpetrator threatened or attempted suicide in the past in 28% of the cases. The perpetrator was u7nemployed at the time of the death event in 25% of the cases. The victim was attempting to or in the process of leaving at the time of the death in 42% of the cases.
Dating Violence: In 2015, there were 2 dating violence homicide victims between the age of 18 and 21; and there were no victims under the age of 18. Of the 667 intimate partner homicide victims identified by the board between 1998 and 2015 in Oklahoma, 12 (0.02%) were 18 years old or younger. Teen victims were killed by their boyfriends, ex-boyfriends, and girlfriends. Consistent with data for adult intimate partner homicides, the majority of teen dating violence homicides were committed by firearms (58%) and perpetrators were overwhelmingly male (83%). In some cases, the perpetrator killed other family members in addition to the intimate or ex-intimate partner.
Contact with Support: On average, between 96% and 98% of domestic violence homicide victims in Oklahoma never talked to a trained domestic violence advocate.
Myth: She asked for it.
Fact: No one asks to be sexually assaulted under any circumstances.
Myth: Men are not at risk.
Fact: 1 in 12 victims of sexual assault are men, and they are less likely to report.
Myth: Victims lie, they want revenge or attention.
Fact: Less than 2% of ALL reported rapes are false accusations.
- Emotional and psychological types of abuse are more prevalent and more damaging than physical or sexual abuse, according to a 2006 Center for the Advancement of Women research, yet they are more difficult to recognize due to their less tangible nature.
- 34 percent of women surveyed in 2002 reported being victims of sexual coercion by a husband or a boyfriend in their lifetime, yet many still question whether sexual violence can and does occur in the context of intimate relationships, particularly marriage.
- Physical violence isn’t rare in intimate relationships either. 10 percent (521,740) of violent crimes in 2003 were committed by the victim’s intimate partner.
- A 2005 nationwide study by the Violence Policy Center (VPC) estimates that nearly 1,200 Americans die each year in murder-suicides. 75 percent of murder-suicides occur in the home.
- Annually in the United States, 503,485 women are stalked by an intimate partner.
- The health-related costs of rape, physical assault, stalking and homicide committed by intimate partners exceed $5.8 billion each year. Of that amount, nearly $4.1 billion are for direct medical and mental health care services, and nearly $1.8 billion are for the indirect costs of lost productivity or wages.
You may be in an emotionally abusive relationship if your partner:
- Calls you names, insults you or continually criticizes you.
- Does not trust you and acts jealous or possessive.
- Tries to isolate you from family or friends.
- Monitors where you go, who you call and who you spend time with.
- Does not want you to work.
- Controls finances or refuses to share money.
- Punishes you by withholding affection.
- Expects you to ask permission.
- Threatens to hurt you, the children, your family or your pets.
- Humiliates you in any way.
- You may be in a physically abusive relationship if your partner has ever:
- Damaged property when angry (thrown objects, punched walls, kicked doors, etc.).
- Pushed, slapped, bitten, kicked or choked you.
- Abandoned you in a dangerous or unfamiliar place.
- Scared you by driving recklessly.
- Used a weapon to threaten or hurt you.
- Forced you to leave your home.
- Trapped you in your home or kept you from leaving.
- Prevented you from calling police or seeking medical attention.
- Hurt your children.
- Used physical force in sexual situations.
- You may be in a sexually abusive relationship if your partner:
- Views women as objects and believes in rigid gender roles.
- Accuses you of cheating or is often jealous of your outside relationships.
- Wants you to dress in a sexual way.
- Insults you in sexual ways or calls you sexual names.
- Has ever forced or manipulated you into to having sex or performing sexual acts.
- Held you down during sex.
- Demanded sex when you were sick, tired or after beating you.
- Hurt you with weapons or objects during sex.
- Involved other people in sexual activities with you.
- Ignored your feelings regarding sex.
1. Princeton Survey Research Associates International for the Center for the Advancement of Women, Violence against Women: A Report of Findings from National Focus Groups with Women and Teen Girls, October 2006.
2. Kathleen C. Basile, Prevalence of Wife Rape and Other Intimate Partner Sexual Coercion in a Nationally Representative Sample of Women, 17 Violence and Victims 511 (2002).
3. Princeton Survey Research Associates International for the Center for the Advancement of Women, Violence against Women: A Report of Findings from National Focus Groups with Women and Teen Girls, October 2006.
4. Catalano, Shannan. (2004). Criminal Victimization, 2003. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
5. Violence Policy Center, American Roulette: Murder-Suicide in the United States, May 2006. Available at http://www.vpc.org/press/0605amroul.htm
6. Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence, National Institute of Justice, 2000.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States, April 2003.
Battering or abuse is a pattern of behavior that seeks to establish power and control over another person through fear and intimidation.
- Emotional – verbal abuse, isolation, humiliation
- Psychological – threats, stalking, intimidation
- Economic – transportation, work, credit, insurance
- Legal threats – false accusations, deportation
- Physical – scratching, hitting, choking, weapons
- Sexual – coerced sex, pornography
If somebody you know has been assaulted:
1. Validate feelings…BELIEVE THEM!
2. Encourage medical and police attention immediately.
3. Be a good listener.
4. Be supportive.
5. Respect the privacy of the victim.
If you have been assaulted:
1. Explore your options, it’s your decision to report to the police.
2. Do not shower, change your clothes, or brush your teeth.
3. Get medical attention for injuries, possible STD’s, and pregnancy.
4. Request a support person, such as an advocate.
Alcohol consumption, especially at harmful or hazardous levels, is a major contributor to the occurrence of intimate partner violence.
In the recent meta-analysis research, every study that examined alcohol use or excessive drinking as a risk factor for partner violence found a significant association, with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.21 to r = 0.57.
- Alcohol use directly affects cognitive and physical function, reducing self-control, leaving individuals less capable of negotiating a non-violent resolution to conflicts within relationships.
- In the United States of America, victims believed their partners to have been drinking prior to a physical assault in 55 percent of cases.
- According to the survey of violence against women in Canada, women who lived with heavy drinkers were five times more likely to be assaulted by their partners than those who lived with non-drinkers.
- Having a culturally supported expectation that drinking alcohol will lead to aggressive behavior increases the risk of committing violence towards a partner.
- In general, in individual cases, the higher the level of alcohol consumption, the more serious is the violence.
- In the US around 11 percent of all homicides between 1976 and 2002 were committed by an intimate partner.
- In the US it has been estimated that a 1 percent increase in the price of alcohol will decrease the probability of intimate partner violence towards women by about 5 percent.
- In the US, treatment for alcohol dependence among males significantly decreased husband-to-wife physical and psychological violence and wife-to- husband marital violence six and 12 months later.
- Alcohol consumption in victims of intimate partner violence has also been shown, although at a lower level than in perpetrators. For example, a Swiss study indicated that victims had been under the influence of alcohol in over 9 percent of incidents of intimate partner violence (compared with 33 percent of perpetrators), while in Iceland, 22 percent of female domestic violence victims reported using alcohol following the event as a mechanism for coping.
- In some societies, both heavy drinking and violent behaviors towards female partners are associated with masculinity.
- Focusing just on governmental costs of services in a developed society, the costs of policing, fire and social work services attributable to alcohol often far outweigh the costs of health services.
- The economic costs of partner violence in the US are $ 12.6 billion a year.
1. World Health Organization. (2002). First World Report on Violence and Health. Retrieved on April 24, 2008 from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/
2. Room, R., Babor, T., Rehm, J. (2005). Alcohol and public health. Lancet, 365: 519-30.
3. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1998). Alcohol and crime: an analysis of national data on the prevalence of alcohol involvement in crime. Washington, DC, United States Department of Justice.
4. World Health Organization. (2002). First World Report on Violence and Health. Retrieved on April 24, 2008 from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/
5. Field, C., Caetano, R., Nelson, S. (2004). Alcohol and violence related cognitive risk factors associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 270-275.
6. WHO Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption. (2007). Second report. (WHO technical report series; no. 944)
7. Bureau of Justice Statistics (2004). Homicide trends in the United States. Washington, DC. United States Department of Justice.
8. Markovitz, S. (2000). The price of alcohol, wife abuse, and husband abuse. Southern Economic Journal, 67, 279-304.
9. Stuart, G. et al. (2003). Reductions in marital violence following treatment for alcohol dependence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 1113-1131.
10. World Health Organization. (2006). Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Fact sheet. Retrieved on April 23, 2008 from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/factsheets/ft_intimate.pdf
11. World Health Organization. (2006). Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Fact sheet. Retrieved on April 23, 2008 from http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/factsheets/ft_intimate.pdf
12. WHO Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption. (2007). Second report. (WHO technical report series; no. 944)
13. Waters, H. et al (2004). The economic dimensions of interpersonal violence. Geneva: World Health Organization.